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IT Spending and Staffing Benchmarks: 2015/2016: IT Budget/Cost Metrics and Other Key Performance Indicators by Industry and Organization Size
Developing and benchmarking, information technology spending or IT employee staffing levels can be a difficult exercise. Our IT Spending and Staffing Benchmarks study makes the job easier by providing hundreds of useful ratios, statistics, and other IT cost metrics for IT budgeting and IT employee headcount analysis. IT spending as a percent of revenue and dozens of other IT budget ratios are documented.

In this annual report, we provide IT budget and staffing metrics by industry sector and organization size for businesses and government organizations in North America, based on our annual in-depth survey of over 200 IT executives, now in its 24th year.
   
Download a free copy of the 40+ page executive summary >>
 
WHO NEEDS THIS STUDY?
For CIOs and consulting firms, this 26-chapter study provides current metrics and unbiased data for you to benchmark an organization's total IT spending and staffing levels. This study will allow you to:
  • Benchmark your IT operational spending levels by comparing them with those of organizations of similar size and industry sector. Over 20 specific IT cost management ratios and other IT support metrics are provided, such as IT budget as a percent of revenue and IT spending per employee, allowing IT executives to highlight opportunities to reduce IT costs and optimize IT expenses.
     
  • Measure your IT capital budget spend levels. Nearly 20 specific IT capital budget metrics are provided for benchmarking IT investment levels.      
     
  • Analyze your IT staffing levels. Over 30 IT headcount ratios are provided for benchmarking IT staff counts.
     
  • Evaluate your IT key performance indicators. Compare your IT intensity and infrastructure metrics with your peers, using measures such as new initiative spending, custom/commercial software mix, virtualization ratios, users per server and per printer, data center OS mix, PC refresh rates, and other KPIs.
For providers of IT products and services, this study provides valuable insights into the current budgeting priorities of IT buyers and changes in levels of IT operational and capital spending. This study provides objective data based on our in-depth survey of IT decision makers. As such, it can be a valuable source of information to validate assumptions underlying your annual business development and sales plans.

    PURCHASING OPTIONS

Scroll down to read a detailed description of each chapter. Click on any link to purchase now.

Summary Chapters
    Chapter 1, Executive Summary  [Free. Download Now]
    Chapter 2, Composite Benchmarks  $1,295
    Chapter 3A, Benchmarks by Organization Size: Small Organizations  $1,295
    Chapter 3B, Benchmarks by Organization Size: Midsize Organizations $1,295
    Chapter 3C, Benchmarks by Organization Size: Large Organizations $1,295

Industry Sector Chapters
    Chapter 4: Process Manufacturing Sector Benchmarks $1,295
    Chapter 5: Discrete Manufacturing Sector Benchmarks $1,295
    Chapter 6: High-Tech Sector Benchmarks $1,295
    Chapter 7: Healthcare Provider Sector Benchmarks $1,295
    Chapter 8: Retail and Wholesale Distribution Sector Benchmarks $1,295
    Chapter 9: Financial Services Sector Benchmarks $1,295
    Chapter 10: Professional and Technical Service Sector Benchmarks $1,295
    Chapter 11: Public and Non-Profit Sector Benchmarks $1,295
   
Subsector Chapters
    Chapter 12: Food and Beverage Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 13: Industrial and Automotive Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 14: Oil and Gas Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 15: Utilities Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 16: Transportation and Logistics Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 17: Construction and Environmental Services Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 18: Retail Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 19: Wholesale Distribution Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 20: Commercial Banking Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 21: Insurance Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 22: IT Services and Solutions Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 23: Hospital and Integrated Health System Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 24: City and County Government Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 25: Government Agency Subsector Metrics $1,295
    Chapter 26: Education Subsector Metrics $1,295

Special Bundle Combinations
    Chapters 1, 2, 3A, 3B, and 3C  $3,995 -- you save 25%
    Chapters 1 and 2 plus choice of one other chapter:  $2,295 -- you save 10%.  Contact us to order
    Chapters 1 and 2 plus choice of two other chapters:  $3,495 -- you save 10%. Contact us to order
    The Full Study (all 26 chapters)  $26,995 -- you save 26%.

If you would like to purchase some other combination of chapters, not listed above, please contact us for special pricing.



DETAILED CHAPTER DESCRIPTIONS

Chapter 1, Executive Summary [Download your FREE copy now!]
This chapter provides an overview of the key findings from the full study and describes the contents of the subsequent chapters. It also includes information on the study participants and the survey methodology.

  • Percentage of Organizations Changing IT Operational Spending
  • IT Operational Budget Change from Prior Year; 2012-2015
  • IT Operational Budget Change from Prior Year, by Organization Size
  • Net Percentage of Organizations Expecting to Spend More Than Budgeted for IT Operations: 2012-2015
  • Adequacy of the Current IT Operational Budget to Support the Business
  • Total IT Spending as Percentage of Revenue at the Median: 2012-2015
  • Total Spending per User: 2011-2015
  • Change from Prior Year in IT Operational Budgets, by Sector
  • Percentage of Organizations Changing IT Capital Spending
  • Change from Prior Year in IT Capital Budgets: 2012-2015
  • How Actual IT Capital Spending Will Compare to Budget
  • Net Percentage of Organizations Increasing Spending
  • Percentage of Organizations Changing IT Staff Headcount
Chapter 2, Composite Benchmarks [Buy Now]
This chapter provides composite metrics for all of the organizations surveyed, across all industry sectors and organization sizes. The metrics provided in this chapter are listed in the Metrics Descriptions section below.

Chapter 3A, 3B, 3C: Benchmarks by Organization Size
In these three chapters, we analyze each of our I.T. spending and staffing metrics by organization size. This chapter classifies organization size differently than most classification schemes. We use the size of the IT operational budget, as revenue is not always a good indicator of the size of the IT operation. This enables IT organizations to compare themselves against similar-size IT organizations. We define the size categories as follows:

To avoid the problem of having very small organizations in our sample, we have excluded respondents with less than $50 million in annual revenue.  

Chapter 4: Process Manufacturing Sector Benchmarks [Buy Now]
Chapter 4 provides benchmarks for process manufacturers based on our current-year survey. Process manufacturers are defined as those where the production process adds value by mixing, separating, forming, or chemical reaction. The category includes manufacturers of chemicals, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, food, building materials, packaging materials, and steel, glass and paper products, among other process-manufactured goods. The 22 respondents in the sample range in size from a minimum of $70 million to a maximum $12 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 5: Discrete Manufacturing Sector Benchmarks [Buy Now]
Chapter 5 provides benchmarks for discrete manufacturing organizations based on our current survey. Discrete manufacturers are defined as those where the production process adds value by fabricating or assembling individual (discrete) unit production. The category includes manufacturers of consumer products, industrial equipment, aerospace products, auto parts, building products, electrical parts, biomedical devices, and electronic devices. The 20 respondents in this sample range in size from about $40 million to $53.0 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 6: High-Tech Sector Benchmarks [Buy Now]
Chapter 6 provides benchmarks for high-tech organizations across all organization sizes based on our current survey. The category includes software developers, biotech firms, medical device companies, computer products manufacturers, aerospace and defense manufacturers, technical service companies, semiconductor manufacturers, and makers of other technology products. The 18 respondents in this sample range in size from $40 million to $9 billion in revenue.

Chapter 7: Healthcare Provider Sector Benchmarks [Buy Now]
Chapter 7 provides benchmarks for healthcare providers based on our current-year survey. The sector includes hospitals, integrated healthcare systems, specialty healthcare centers, and medical practice groups. The 18 respondents in this sample range in size from a minimum of $50 million to a maximum of $34.0 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 8: Retail and Wholesale Distribution Sector Benchmarks [Buy Now]
Chapter 8 provides benchmarks for retail and wholesale distributors based on our current survey. The sector includes broad-line and specialty wholesale distributors of industrial and consumer products and brick-and-mortar retail operations, multichannel retailers, and direct-sales manufacturers. The 22 respondents in this sample range in size from $100 million to $25 billion in revenue.

Chapter 9: Financial Services Sector Benchmarks [Buy Now]
Chapter 9 provides benchmarks for financial services companies based on our current-year survey. The firms in this sector include commercial banks, investment banks, mortgage lenders, and insurance companies.The 25 respondents range in size from $22 million to nearly $5.4 billion in annual sales.

Chapter 10: Professional and Technical Sector Benchmarks [Buy Now]
Chapter 10 provides benchmarks for professional and technical services across all organization sizes based on our current survey. The sector includes firms that provide professional and technical services, including engineering, legal, accounting, consulting, marketing, and research, among other services. The 23 respondents in the sample range in size from $50 million to $4.8 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 11: Public and Non-Profit Sector Benchmarks [Buy Now]
Chapter 11 provides benchmarks for public and nonprofit organizations based on our current survey. The sector includes city and county governments, regional agencies, state and federal government agencies, state governments, universities and school systems, and nonprofit organizations. The 36 respondents in the sample range in size from about $50 million to $25.4 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 12: Food and Beverage Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 12 provides benchmarks for food and beverage manufacturers across all organization sizes, based on three years of survey data. Food and beverage companies produce beverages, snack foods, meat products, dairy products, dietary supplements, spices, and other consumable food products. Some also distribute products to retail outlets. The 22 respondents in the sample range in size from $40 million to $3.8 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 13: Industrial and Automotive Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 13 provides benchmarks for industrial and automotive manufacturers across all organization sizes, based on the most recent three years of survey data. The 29 respondents in this subsector make auto parts, material handling equipment, engines, machinery, and similar capital goods. The manufacturers in the sample range in size from $50 million to $96.3 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 14: Oil and Gas Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 14 provides benchmarks for oil and gas producers, service companies, and midstream distributors across all organization sizes, based on the most recent three years of survey data. The 20 respondents in this subsector include integrated energy companies, upstream exploration and production companies, onshore and offshore field services companies, and pipeline operators.  The oil and gas companies in our sample range in size from $300 million to more than $33.9 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 15: Utilities Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 15 provides benchmarks for utilities across all organization sizes, based on the most recent three years of survey data. This category include gas and electric utilities, power transmission distributors, pipeline operators, water and power utilities, and telecommunications service providers.  The 20 respondents in this subsector range in size from $88 million to $10.9 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 16: Transportation and Logistics Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 16 provides benchmarks for transportation and logistics services across all organization sizes, based on the most recent three years of survey data. The category includes organizations that operate buses, trucks, railways, airlines, barges, and ships. The subsector includes logistics companies that transport goods and transportation companies and agencies that move people.  The 20 respondents in this sample range in size from $67 million to nearly $6.2 billion.

Chapter 17: Construction and Environmental Services Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 17 provides benchmarks for construction and environmental services companies across all organization sizes, based on the most recent three years of survey data. The category includes engineering and construction companies, commercial, residential and industrial construction contractors, oil service firms, and firms that specialize in the cleanup, treatment, and disposal of wastewater and hazardous materials. The 23 respondents in the sample range in size from $52 million to $10.7 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 18: Retail Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 18 provides benchmarks for retailers based on the most recent three years of survey data. This subsector include retailers of clothing, pharmaceuticals, electronics, groceries, office supplies, and general merchandise. They include department stores, specialty retailers, big-box retailers, and direct manufacturers. We also include hospitality and consumer services in this subsector.  The 29 respondents in the sample range in size from $85 million to $19 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 19: Wholesale Distribution Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 18 provides benchmarks for retailers based on the most recent three years of survey data. This subsector include retailers of clothing, pharmaceuticals, electronics, groceries, office supplies, and general merchandise. They include department stores, specialty retailers, big-box retailers, and direct manufacturers. We also include hospitality and consumer services in this subsector. The 22 respondents in the sample range in size from $100 million to $25 billion in revenue.

Chapter 20: Commercial Banking Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 20 provides benchmarks for commercial banks based on the most recent three years of survey data. This subsector includes credit unions and community, regional, and national banks. The 20 respondents in this sample have annual revenue ranging from a low of $22 million to a high of 18.4 billion.

Chapter 21: Insurance Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 21 provides benchmarks for insurance companies based on the most recent three years of survey data. The sector includes providers of life, medical, and property and casualty insurance. The sector includes multiline insurance firms, integrated financial services companies, reinsurers, and specialty insurers. The 27 respondents in the sample range in size from $67.6 million to nearly $19.5 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 22: IT Services and Solutions Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 22 provides IT spending and staffing statistics for the IT services and solutions subsector based on the most recent three years of survey data. The category includes software companies, systems integrators, solution providers, business process outsourcing firms, and other providers of technology services and solutions. There are 32 organizations in the sample, ranging in size from $44.5 million to $8 billion in annual revenue.

Chapter 23: Hospital and Integrated Health Systems Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 23 provides benchmarks for hospitals and integrated health systems based on the most recent three years of survey data. The 38 respondents in this sector include community hospital groups, multiregional hospital systems, and university hospitals. These organizations range in size from $60 million to $34 billion in annual gross revenue.

Chapter 24: City and County Government Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 24 provides benchmarks for city and county governments based on the most recent three years of survey data. The 49 respondents in this subsector have annual operating budgets ranging from $46 million to $7.2 billion.

Chapter 25: Government Agency Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 25 provides benchmarks for federal, state, and regional government agencies based on the most recent three years of survey data. The category includes transportation planning agencies, public health agencies, social service agencies, environmental regulatory agencies, civil service commissions, and other federal, state, and regional government units. The 21 respondents in the sample have operating budgets that range in size from $30 million to more than $25.4 billion.

Chapter 26: Education Subsector Metrics [Buy Now]
Chapter 26 provides benchmarks for the education subsector based on the most recent three years of survey data. The subsector includes public and private colleges and universities and large public school districts.  The 29 respondents in the sample have operating budgets ranging in size from $50 million to $6.7 billion.



METRICS DESCRIPTIONS

Metrics for Composite (Chapter 2) and Organization Size (Chapter 3A, 3B, 3C) Benchmarks
This section lists the metrics provided in Chapter 2 for the composite sample and in Chapters 3A, 3B, and 3C for small, midsize, and large organizations. These chapters include 48 figures, including eight tables.

  
Demographics
This chapter includes 13 sections. In Section 1, we describe the key characteristics of the sample to establish a basis for comparison with other IT organizations. These metrics are as follows:

  • Organization size demographics, including revenue, employees, and revenue per employee
  •  IT spending demographics, including IT spending, IT operational spending, IT capital spending, and IT outsourcing budget
  • IT infrastructure demographics, including number of data centers, network sites, and business applications
  • Key metrics for IT intensity, including users per employee, PCs per user, percentage of users with tablets, percentage of users with smartphones, users per network site, and percentage of application functionality from custom systems
Spending by Type
In Section 2, we describe IT spending by type of spending. These metrics not only provide additional demographic information, but also identify IT trends. They include:
  • Percentage of IT spending devoted to ongoing support
  • Outsourcing as percentage of IT budget
  • Percentage of IT spending outside IT budget
  • Cloud/subscription software as a percentage of application portfolio
Budgeting Priorities
In Section 3, we examine key budget priorities for IT organizations. These metrics include:
  • Net percentage of organizations planning to increase spending in the areas of cloud applications, business applications, cloud infrastructure, network infrastructure, data center infrastructure, PCs and printers, and smartphones/tablets
  • The importance of lower costs vs. improving service levels

Total IT Spending Metrics
Section 4 presents metrics on IT spending, which includes current-year IT operational and capital spending, but excludes depreciation. These metrics include:

  • Total IT spending as a percentage of revenue
  • Total IT spending per user
  • Total IT spending per PC
  • Total IT spending by category as an average percentage of total IT spending, including spending on personnel, business applications, data center hardware/software, energy/utilities, IT facilities/floorspace, network infrastructure, security, voice/data carrier expense, end-user devices (PCs/smartphones), printers/printing, and other expenses

IT Operational Spending Metrics
Section 5 presents metrics for IT operational spending. These metrics are as follows:

  • Percentage of organizations decreasing, maintaining, or increasing IT operational spending year over year
  • IT operational budget percentage change from previous year
  • How executives expect actual IT operational spending will compare with budget
  • Adequacy of current IT operational budget to support the business
  • IT operational spending as a percentage of revenue
  • IT operational spending per user
  • IT operational spending per PC
  • Percentage of IT operational budget charged back to users
  • Personnel as a percentage of IT operational spending at the 25th percentile, median, and 75th percentile
  • Depreciation as a percentage of IT operational budget

Capital Spending Metrics
Section 6 provides an analysis of IT capital budgets, including:

  • Percentage of organizations decreasing, maintaining, and increasing IT capital spending
  • IT capital budget change from prior year
  • Percentage of organizations expecting to spend more, the same, or less than amount budgeted for IT capital expenses this year
  • How executives expect actual IT capital spending will compare with budget
  • IT capital budget as a percentage of IT budget
  • IT capital budget by category as an average percentage of IT capital budget, including spending on personnel, business applications, data center hardware/software, energy/utilities, IT facilities/floorspace, network infrastructure, security, voice/data carrier expense, end-user devices (PCs/smartphones), printers/printing, and other expenses

IT Staffing Metrics
In Section 7, we provide key metrics and trend data on IT staffing, including:

  • Users per IT staff member
  • Percentage of organizations increasing, maintaining, and decreasing IT staff levels from previous year
  • IT staff headcount change from previous year
  • IT staff turnover
  • Annual training allocation per IT employee
  • Contractors/temporary workers as percentage of IT staff
  • IT staff functions as an average percentage of IT staff, as shown in Figure 1-15. The categories include IT managers, IT finance/vendor management/procurement, project management, clerical support, application programmers/systems analysts/architects, data management, quality assurance/testing, database administration, server support, network support, communications support, web/e-commerce, security, help desk, desktop support, documentation/training/process and standards, and other

Job function benchmarks
In Section 8, we provide key benchmarks for six job functions:

  • IT managers as a percentage of IT staff
  • OS instances per server support staff member
  • Network devices per network support staff member
  • Applications per application developer
  • PCs per desktop support staff member
  • Users per help desk staff member
  • First-call resolution rate
Service Area Spending Metrics
Section 9 shows IT spending by service area as a percentage of total IT spending. The service areas are IT management, business applications, data center, network, and end-user computing.

Business Application Metrics
Section 10 provides business application metrics, including:

  •  Business application spending as percentage of IT spending
  •  Business application spending per user

Data Center Metrics
Section 11 covers these data center spending and infrastructure metrics:

  • Processing workload by operating system, including IBM mainframe, Unix, Linux, IBM i, Windows Server, and other
  • Consolidated data center spending per user
  • Consolidated data center spending per server
  • Data center hardware/software spending as a percentage of IT spending
  • Data center hardware/software spending per user
  • Energy/utilities as a percentage of IT spending
  • Energy/utilities spending per user
  • OS instances per physical server
  • Users per physical server

Network Metrics
Section 12 covers the following network metrics:s:

  • Consolidated network spending per user
  • Network/communications infrastructure as a percentage of IT spending
  • Network/communications infrastructure spending per user
  • IT security as a percentage of IT spending
  • IT security spending per user
  • Data/voice carrier fees as a percentage of IT spending
  • Data/voice carrier spending per user

End-user Computing Metrics
Section 13 covers the following network computing metrics:

  • Consolidated end-user technology spending per user
  • End-user devices as a percentage of IT spending
  • End-user device spending per user
  • PC refresh rate in years
  • Printing as a percentage of IT spending
  • Printing spending per user
  • Users per printer
As noted above, in each chapter, the section on total IT spending and the secton on IT operational budgets include a detailed analysis of IT budget line items as a percentage of the total. Line items include IT personnel, application software, servers and storage systems, data center management software, business continuity, energy/utilities, IT facilities/floorspace, network infrastructure, carrier service, security, PCs and smartphones, printers, and “other.” An example of the presentation of this data is shown in Figure 1. Please note that the percentages shown here do not represent the actual data in the report, but are only provided to illustrate the format of the data presented.

   

 

As noted earlier, the staffing section of each chapter concludes with a breakdown of IT staffing ratios for 17 individual job positions, with each position provided as an average percentage of the total IT headcount. Job positions include IT managers; IT finance/vendor managers; project managers; clerical/administration; application development and maintenance; business analysts; web and e-commerce staff; data management; quality assurance and testing;database administration; system programmers and system administrators; computer operations and production control; network and communications; security; help desk; desktop support; and documentation, training and IT process/standards personnel.

   

An example of the presentation of this data is shown in Figure 2. Please note once again that the percentages shown here do not represent the actual data in the report, but are only provided to illustrate the format of the data presented.
 

Metrics in Sector and Subsector Chapters
The sector chapters, Chapters 4-11, and the subsector chapters, Chapters 12-23, have 28 figures, including five tables. The subsector chapters for government and education, Chapters 24-26, have fewer figures due to differences in accounting practices.

In Section 1, we describe the key characteristics of the respondents in this sector to establish a basis for comparison with other IT operations. These metrics are as follows:

  • Organization size demographics, including revenue, employees, and revenue per employee
  • IT spending demographics, including IT spending, IT capital spending, and IT outsourcing budget
  • IT infrastructure demographics, including number of data centers, network sites, and business applications
  • Key metrics of IT intensity, including users per employee, PCs per user, percentage of users with tablets, percentage of users with smartphones, users per network site, and percentage of application functionality from custom systems

In Section 2, we describe IT spending by type of spending. These metrics not only provide additional demographic information, but also identify IT trends. They include:

  • Percentage of IT spending devoted to ongoing support
  • Outsourcing as a percentage of IT budget
  • Percentage of IT spending outside IT budget

Section 3 presents metrics on IT spending, which includes current-year IT operational and capital spending but excludes depreciation. These metrics include:

  • Total IT spending as a percentage of revenue
  • Total IT spending per user
  • Total IT spending per PC
  • Total IT spending by category as an average percentage of total IT spending, including spending on personnel, business applications, data center hardware/software, energy/utilities, IT facilities/floorspace, network infrastructure, security, voice/data carrier expense, end-user devices (PCs/smartphones), printers/printing, and other expenses

Section 4 presents metrics for IT operational spending, which includes depreciation. These metrics are as follows:

  • IT operational spending as a percentage of revenue
  • IT operational spending per user
  • IT operational spending per PC
  • Percentage of IT operational budget charged back to users
  • IT operational spending by category as an average percentage of IT operational spending, including spending on personnel, business applications, data center hardware/software, energy/utilities, IT facilities/floorspace, network infrastructure, security, voice/data carrier expense, end-user devices (PCs/smartphones), printers/printing, and other expenses (See example in Figure 1-14)
  • Personnel as a percentage of IT operational spending at the 25th percentile, median, and 75th percentile
  • Depreciation as a percentage of IT operational budget

Section 5 provides an analysis of IT capital budgets, including:

  • IT capital budget as a percentage of IT budget
  • IT capital budget by category as an average percentage of IT capital budget, including spending on personnel, business applications, data center hardware/software, energy/utilities, IT facilities/floorspace, network infrastructure, security, voice/data carrier expense, end-user devices (PCs/smartphones), printers/printing, and other expenses

In Section 6, we provide key metrics and trend data on IT staffing, including:

  • Users per IT staff member
  • IT staff turnover
  • Annual training allocation per IT employee
  • Contingency workers as a percentage of IT staff
  • IT staff functions as an average percentage of IT staff, including IT managers, IT finance/vendor management/procurement, project management, clerical support, application programmers/system analysts/architects, data management, QA/testing, database administration, server support, network support, communications support, web/e-commerce, security, help desk, desktop support, documentation/training/process and standards, and other. (See example in Figure 1-15)

Section 7 shows IT spending by service area as a percentage of total IT spending. The service areas are IT management, business applications, data center, network, and end-user computing.

Section 8 provides selected IT infrastructure and spending metrics, including:

  • Processing workload by operating system, including IBM mainframe, Unix, Linux, IBM i, Windows Server, and other
  • Business application spending as percentage of IT spending
  • Business application spending per user
  • Consolidated data center spending per user
  • Consolidated data center spending per server

 CUSTOM BENCHMARKING SERVICE

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